Tech’s Frightful Five: They’ve Got Us

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/10/technology/techs-frightful-five-theyve-got-us.html

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SSGNs Finally See Combat

SSGNs Finally See Combat
Strategypage.com, Aug 30, 2011
August 30, 2011: With nearly all of Libya overrun by
rebels, it was possible to get a close look at how well the
American Tomahawk TLAM-E did in its first combat
use. The missile performed as predicted. Most of these
Tomahawks were fired during the initial air attack on
March 19th. Moreover, most of the Tomahawks (over a
hundred) launched on that day were fired by one ship;
the nuclear submarine USS Florida. This was the first
time an SSGN saw combat, but not the first time nuclear
subs have fired missiles in wartime (U.S. SSNs have
fired Tomahawks several times.)
The USS Florida was one of four Ohio class ballistic
missile submarines (SSBN) converted to cruise missile
submarines (SSGN). The USS Florida and the other
three SSGNs entered service over the last five years, and
this is the first time one of them fired its missiles in
combat. Each of these Ohio class boats now carry 154
Tomahawk cruise missiles, and provides space for 66
commandos (usually SEALs) and their equipment.
The idea of converting ballistic missile subs, that would
have to be scrapped to fulfill disarmament agreements,
has been bouncing around since the 1990s. After
September 11, 2001, the idea got some traction. The
navy submariners love this one, because they lost a lot of

their reason for being with the end of the Cold War. The
United States had built a powerful nuclear submarine
force during the Cold War, but with the rapid
disappearance of the Soviet navy in the 1990s, there was
little reason to keep over a hundred nuclear subs in
commission. These boats are expensive, costing over a
billion each to build and over a million dollars a week to
operate. The four Ohio class SSBN being converted each
have at least twenty years of life left in them.
The idea of a sub, armed with 154 highly accurate cruise
missiles, and capable of rapidly traveling under water
(ignoring weather, or observation) at a speed of over
1,200 kilometers a day, to a far off hot spot, had great
appeal in the post-Cold War world. The ability to carry a
large force of commandos as well was also attractive. In
one sub you have your choice of hammer or scalpel.
More capable cruise missiles are in the works as well.
Whether or not this multi-billion dollar investment will
pay off remains to be seen, but it certainly worked off
Libya.
And then there’s the new Tomahawk. The RGM-109E
Block IV Surface Ship Vertical Launched Tomahawk
Land Attack Missile weighs 1.2 ton, is six meters (18
feet) long, has a range of 1,600 kilometers, getting there
at a speed of 600-900 kilometers an hour, flying at an
altitude of 17-32 meters (50-100 feet) and propelled by a
jet engine generating only 600 pounds of thrust.
Accuracy is on a par with JDAM (10 meters/ 31 feet).
The Block IV Tomahawk can be reprogrammed in flight
to hit another target and carries a vidcam to allow a
missile to check on prospective targets.
But there’s always something new. Last year, there was
a successful test of the new JMEW (Joint Multi-Effects
Warhead System) warhead for its Tomahawk Block IV
cruise missile. The new, 450 kg (1,000 pound) warhead
is designed mainly for penetrating underground bunkers,
but it will also provide excellent blast effect for less
robust targets. Exact penetration was not revealed.
JMEW uses laser terminal guidance, enabling it to hit
within a few meters (ten feet) of its aiming point. JMEW
can also hit moving targets.

How to manage.pst files in Outlook 2007, in Outlook 2003, and in Outlook 2002

How to manage.pst files in Outlook 2007, in Outlook 2003, and in Outlook 2002